Role of Ultra sound in infertility
Ultra sound plays a very vital role in infertile patients in whom there is difficulty in conceiving.
It is used by infertility specialists to see the structures in the female abdomen and pelvis. Ultra sound uses high frequency sound waves emitted by a probe or transducer which are bounced back by the organs and tissues of the body and the reflected sound waves are received by the probe and the computer is used to reconstruct the waves, into images on the monitor.
Abdominal ultra sound uses a probe that requires full bladder, so that sound waves could be transmitted easily into the pelvis. It is used even today for embryo transfers and ultra sound guided intra uterine inseminations.
All other infertility scans are done using trans vaginal ultra sound probe which is long, slim and slender probe that is inserted into the vagina. Image quality is very superior here since the probe is of higher frequency and it is closer to the pelvic organs.
It is absolutely painless and is very comfortable for the ladies.
The transvaginal ultra sound done on day 2 or day 3 of periods gives a very good idea about the position of uterus and cervix, position of ovaries, egg count in each ovary, presence or absence of fibroids, polyps, other cysts etc.
All these information is very essential for the treating doctor to start the treatment for the conception, which is usually done from D2 or D3.
Also, once the stimulation process is going on, the doctor does frequent scans to check for follicular growth (egg size), endometrial lining (Inner lining of uterus) and also the signs of egg rupture, so that doctor advices the couple for timed intercourse or intra uterine insemination of washed husband semen into the uterine cavity.
By Doing meticulous ultra sound scans and monitoring it, conception becomes very easy. Once the pregnancy test becomes positive, Trans Vaginal ultrasound is done to confirm the intra uterine gestation or is it extra uterine. Extra uterine pregnancies are called ectopic pregnancy, which is abnormal and requires immediate attention to thwart emergency situations for the lady.
In males, trans rectal scan, scrotal scans and Doppler scan are done to know testicular volume and function, presence of any infection, presence of any vascular abnormalities like varicocele, to rule out hydrocele, and also to rule out any obstructive lesions.
So, to conclude, ultra sound technique is a real boon for the aspiring couples which is simple, safe, cost effective and highly informative to plan further treatment modalities.